This study argues that it is time to let go of the old colonial concept, the “Middle East,” and re-learn to think in Mediterranean terms. The Eastern Mediterranean has become a key area for global security, with two dangerous challenges, and an important opportunity. The challenges are the regional refugee crisis due to chaotic conditions in Syria, Libya and beyond; and the growing hold upon Mediterranean shores of totalitarian Islamism in its various forms. The opportunity lies in energy cooperation between Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Greece and Cyprus (with a role for Italy). This is not an effort to isolate Turkey, but rather to create a regional balance of power, in which Turkey could also play a role once that country’s leadership matures and moderates.